Meaning of Restitution of Conjugal Rights :
Restoration of conjugal rights is the goal of marriage, because it is the objective of marriage to unite and comfort the two parties.
Conjugal rights are available for restitution :
India offers restitution as a remedy:
- Under section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Hindus were permitted to marry under Hinduism.
- under the law of Muslims.
- A Christian under the Indian Divorce Act, 1869, is allowed to divorce under section 32 of the same Act.
- An application under section 36 of the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936, to the Parsi people under the Parsi is an admission that they are Parsi.
Act on Hindu Marriage, 1955, Section 9 :
- The provision of Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, regarding the restitution of conjugal rights, is relevant.
- Either the husband or the wife, may give a gift to the other.
- Without any rational explanation, one withdraws from the community of others.
- The aggrieved party may apply for restitution of conjugal rights in the district court if the court finds that there has been a violation of the conjugal rights.
- The court may determine that the statement made in the order is true by assessing the truth of the statement made in the order and finding that there is no legal obstacle to its acceptance.
- The court can order restitution of a conjugal right after that.
Conjugal Restitution: The Essential Elements :
Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (restitution of conjugal rights) contains the following basic elements:
- The parties must be married.
- One should not stay in the company of a person who is bad.
- Without a good reason, you must withdraw from school.
- The court must determine whether there is any legal argument that would preclude the decree from being issued.
Who may apply for a Restitution Decree?
Under section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, a husband may file a restitution petition against his wife.
A relatively small group of people considers what word to use in section 9. The word “withdraw from society” and “reasonable excuse” are defined in several statements by the judiciary, but these statements are never defined.
Now, look at some statements that provide information about “withdraw from society” and “reasonable excuse.”
Case law under Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act :
In Sushila Bai vs Prem Narayan Rai (AIR 1985), the court observed that if the husband abandoned his wife in her father’s home and did not maintain any connection with her, then restitution was permissible. By the same token, if the husband deserted his wife in her father’s house and did not maintain any connection with her, then restitution was permitted. In Tirath Kaur vs Kirpal Singh (AIR 1996), the Punjab and Haryana High Court considered whether a wife’s employment as an excuse to leave her husband’s society would be considered a “reasonable excuse.” In this case, the court applied a traditional view and held that the wife’s employment was not a reasonable excuse. The court further stated that “the wife’s first duty is to submit herself to her husband and remain under his protection.”
In Shanti Devi vs Ramesh Chandra (AIR 1969), the Allahabad High Court took a progressive approach in applying Section 9 of the Act. It held that when a woman quits her husband’s business during hard times, if she withdraws from it, this withdrawal is regarded as a valid one and is commended as a reasonable one. Thus no restitution was ordered.
Under Section 9 of HMA, what constitutes a reasonable excuse?
The following are generally considered reasonable excuses:
- The area where the party can get matrimonial relief.
- Though the party guilty of any marital misconduct but that misconduct is not grounds for divorce under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act is still guilty of that misconduct. Furthermore, the misconduct may also be considered a reasonable excuse.
- The party must commit any marital act or omission or make any marital misconduct that would make the other party stop living with them.